HIEROGLYPHICS or PICTOGRAPHS – symbols that represent whole ideas or concepts
ALPHABETIC Code – each letter represents a sound
- Horace Mann promoted “no drill”
- Sight-word (whole word) instruction
- Teach MEANING over word decoding
- McGuffey Readers – primarily sight-word
- Rudolph Flesch asked Why Johnny Can’t Read – he recommended return to PHONICS at a time when “Dick and Jane” were in use.
- His book promoted a split in philosophy between whole-language and phonics teachers.
- The National Reading Panel reports a combination of phonics, word sounds and oral reading is the most effective way to teach reading.
- Many schools are still using “whole language.”
- We see massive documented reading failure in America’s children.
- Scientific research shows that direct, systematic phonics is the best foundation for beginning to read.