References in Phonemics

Ball, E. W. Phonological awareness: What’s important and to whom? Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal 5:2 (1993, June) 141-159.

Cunningham, A. Explicit versus implicit instruction in phonemic awareness. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 50 (1990) 429-444.

Chard, David J. and Shirley V. Dickson. Phonological Awareness: Instructional and Assessment Guidelines. Intervention in School and Clinic 34:5 (May, 1999) 261-270. Online at

Dye, G. A. & L. McConnell. Learning through rhyme. TEACHlNG Exceptional Children 29:4 (1997, March/April) 72-73.

ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education. (1996, Spring). Beginning reading and phonological awareness for students with learning disabilities. TEACHING Exceptional Children 28(3), 78-79.

Frost, J. A. & M. J. Emery. Academic interventions for children -with dyslexia who have phonological core deficits (ERIC Digest E539). Reston, VA: ERIC Clearinghouse on Disabilities and Gifted Education. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 385 095)(1995, August).

Goswami, U. & P. Bryant. Phonological skills and learning to read. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1990. (Contact Taylor & Francis, at 800-821-8312)

Griffith, F. L. & M. W. Olson. Phonemic awareness helps beginning readers break the code. Reading Teacher 45:7 (1992, March) 516-523.

Hatcher, F., C. Hulme, & A. Ellis. Ameliorating early reading failure by integrating the teaching of reading and phonological skills: The phonological linkage hypothesis. Mild Development 65 (1994) 41-57.

McBride-Chang, C. What is phonological aware­ness? Journal of Educational Psychology 87:2 (1995) 179-192.

O’Connor, R., J. Jenkins, I. Slocum, & N. Leicester. Teaching phonemic manipulation skills to children with learning handicaps: Rhyming, blending, and segmenting. Exceptional Children 59 (1993) 532-546.

Oldrieve, R. M. Success with reading and spelling: Students internalize words through structured lessons. TEACHJNG Exceptional Children 29:4 (1997, March/April) 57-64.

Olson, M. W. & P. Griffith. Phonological awareness: The what, why, and how. Reading and Writing Quarterly: Overcoming Learning Difficulties 9:4 (1993, October-December) 351-360.

Smith, S. B., D. C. Simmons & E. J. Kameenui. Phonological awareness: Curricular and instructional implications for diverse learners (Technical Report No. 22). Eugene, OR: Univ. of Oregon, National Center to Improve the Tools of Educators. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 386 869)(1995, February).

Spector, J. E. Phonemic awareness training: Application of Principles of direct instruction. Reading and Writing Quarterly: Overcoming Learning Difficulties 11:1 (1995, January-March) 37-51.